Exam 1 Study Guide
The exam will consist of multiple choice, true-false, “fill-in”, and short answer. Total of 100 points.
The following is by no means everything on the test. This guide emphasizes main topics that are covered on the test in one fashion or another. Study your notes, the test is based on the notes given in class. Read your book to back up the notes given in class. Concentrate on the topics given in class when reading your book. Study groups can help - but you need to study not just talk! You will really learn the material if you can teach it to someone. Review you lecture notes in detail. Highlight new terms & concepts. Use the text to complete and correct your notes. Don’t forget to use your text glossary & index to help define terms and find subjects. If you’re not sure whether you should know something, either ask or just learn it! Good Luck!!!
Attributes of Life: Ch 1
Know the hierarchy of organization. Know the 3 Domains and the 5 classical kingdoms. Know representatives for each kingdom. Where would you find Archaea? What are the 7 attributes of life and the significance of each? Know the 5 points to the cell theory. Know the distinguishing features on how cells a categorized. What is the lowest level of organization that possesses all the attributes of life? Evolution (as discussed thus far): natural selection, Darwin, differential reproduction. Understand what places the selection pressure on organisms. What is the core theme in biology which ties all the others together? Understand how positive & negative feedbacks are involved in homeostasis. Be prepared to diagram either a positive or a negative feedback mechanism and they are involved in homeostasis. Understand the scientific method. What’s a hypothesis? Know inductive & deductive reasoning. Know the difference between qualitative & quantitative data. How do scientists develop hypotheses? Know the points discussed about hypotheses in lab. Why do scientists make predictions? Why are there controls in an experiment? Know the three types of statistical analyses discussed in class – what do they test for? Be prepared to interpret a statistical analysis, difference between one and two tailed, and construct an appropriate figure. This will be on your exam!
Chemistry of Life: Ch 2.
Know what atoms, elements & compounds are. What does the atomic number refer to? Atomic mass? Know the charges for the components of an atom and which are involved in chemical bond formations. Know which elements make up 96% of all living matter. What are trace elements and their possible roles? Isotopes? Radioactive isotopes? Know the types of bonds discussed in class: covalent (polar & non-polar), ionic, hydrogen and Van der Waal forces.
Water: Ch. 3
What type of bond can be found in a water molecule? What type of bond is found between water molecules? Know the 5 properties of water and their significance to the environment and you. How many calories does it take to change 1 g or water 1C? Know the difference between solute, solvent and solution. Understand the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering system and as a negative feedback mechanism (ties in with the acids bases lab). Understand why water can easily separate ionic and polar covalently bonded molecules but have more difficulty others. What is pH a measure of? Know the differences between acids, bases and buffers. Molarity?
Molecules of Life: Ch 4
Know what is meant by organic. Know the molecules that C tends to bind with. Know the functional groups discussed in class and how to recognize them. Know hydrocarbons and their composition. Know the different types of isomers. Know why carbon is such a versatile element and the different factors that cause organic molecules to have different properties.
Macromolecules: Ch 5
Know the four classes of macromolecules discussed in class and be able to give examples & functions for each. Know the difference between polymers and monomers. Know dehydration synthesis & hydrolysis and how each is involved in polymer formation or breakdown including the following: peptide bond, glycosidic linkage, phosphodiester linkageester linkage. Carbohydrates: what are the subunits? Know the 3 elements and functional group(s) found in carbohydrates. Know how carbs are classified. Know examples of energy storage and structural polysaccharides and where they can be found. Know the equations for photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Lipids: know the 3 major groups of lipids. Know the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats. What is hydrogenation and its uses? What is amphipathic? Know the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Know the role of steroids. Know the structure of phospholipids and their behavior in aqueous environments. Nucleotide based molecules: know the components of a nucleotide. Know the difference between DNA & RNA. What is ATP and its function? Know the function of nucleotide-base molecules. What is a gene? Know the follow of information for protein production. Know the differences between purines and pyrimidines (A, G, C, T, U). Proteins: what are the subunits of proteins? Know the 4 levels of protein structure and the bonds associated with them. What are the functions of proteins? Know the factors that affect protein structure and their role in denaturing proteins What determines a protein’s function? What is the role of chaperone proteins?
Cells & Membranes: (Ch 6 & 7)
Know the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Know the different types of organelles and their functions. understand how cells communicate. What are the different types of junctions and their role? Know the endomembrane system and how they’re interconnected. Know the difference between plant and animal cells. Know the endosymbiotic moled for how eukaryotic cells arose. Understand why cells are so small and why prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells. Know the structures involved in cell motility and how they interact for movement. Know the components of the plasma membrane, its structure and function. know the different types of membrane proteins. Know the difference between diffusion, osmosis, active and passive transport - which do or do not require energy. Know what isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions are and their affects on cells. Know how large molecules move into and out of cells. Understand how the membrane potential is generated and maintained.